每周一个长难句,手把手教程(第19期)

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小白老师说:当你静下心去做让你焦虑的事,焦虑就会慢慢减少,你做的越多,焦虑就越少。每周一个长难句,踏踏实实吃透语法、扩充单词、提升能力。



来看今天的句子:

Not since Americans crossed the continent in covered wagons have they exercised and dieted as vigorously as they are doing today.


这个句子不长,而且只有一丢丢难。


分 析:难点在于倒装。


该句以否定词 not 接 since 引导的状语从句开头,根据英语语法,否定词放在句首,句子应部分倒装。在阅读理解中遇到倒装句,我们首先把句子调整成正常语序:


Since Americans crossed the continent in covered wagons, they have not exercised and dieted as vigorously as they are doing today.


语序调整后,顺利找到句子的主干:they have not exercised and dieted...


然后扫清生词:

  • continent  [ˈkɑːntɪnənt]  n.大陆,洲,陆地

  • wagon  [ˈwæɡən]  n. 货车,四轮马车

  • vigorously  [ˈvɪgərəsli]  adv. 积极地;(体育活动)剧烈地;强度大地


最后翻译成中文:

自从美国人乘坐篷车穿越大陆以来,他们从未像今天这样积极地锻炼和节食。


以上就是一个完整、清晰的分析思路。接下来是今天的重头戏,给大家顺带复习一下倒装句的语法。


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语法精讲:倒装句


英语中的倒装句(inversion)是一种常见的语言现象,倒装句是指主语和组成谓语的某一部分或全部出现了次序颠倒现象。倒装又分三种情况:

  • 完全倒装

  • 部分倒装

  • 位移


下面就这三种倒装各给一个例句,大家感受一下区别:

1. 完全倒装:

原始句:Mr. Smith came in just at the moment.

倒装后:Just at the moment in came Mr. Smith .


2. 部分倒装:

原始句:I didn’t go to bed until my homework was done last night.

倒装后:Not until my homework was done did I go to bed last night.


3. 位移:

原始句:Until my homework was done I didn’t go to bed.

位移后:It’s not until my homework was done that I went to bed.

这个原始句位移后就成了一个强调句。


以上是倒装句最基本的三种情况,下面我们展开,详细讲一下各自有哪些用法。


第一,完全倒装(7 种情况)

完全倒装是指句子的主语和谓语完全倒置。例如:

1. 直接引语开头的句子

“As far as I know , Tom will come in a few minutes,” said Mr. Smith.

“据我所知,汤姆一会儿就回来,”史密斯先生说道。


2. Long 开头表达祝愿的句子

Long live our motherland. 祖国万岁!


3. 表语或状语放在句首(用来表示强调)的句子

Present at the meeting were our headmaster and many other teachers.

出席会议的有我们的校长以及其他好多老师。

Among the presents are pencils, pens, rubbers, toys and so on.

各种礼品包括铅、钢笔、橡皮、洋娃娃等等。


4. Such 作表语放在句首

Such would be our home in the future. 

我们未来的家就像这样。

Such is what I have been longing for for years.

这就是我多少年来一直盼望的事情。


5. There be 句型。包括There live(s)..., There exist(s) ..., There stand(s)..., There lie(s)...等等。

There stands a tall tree in the mountain. 

那座山上有一棵大树。

There lies a small river between the two hills. 

两座小山之间有一条小河。


6. 提问“纯系动词”的表语所构成的特殊疑问句

What’s your name ?

How old are you ?

Who is your brother ?

What’s the population in China ?

Whose school-bag is this ?


值得注意的是:提问主语的特殊疑问句属于陈述句词序。如:

Who is knocking at the door? 谁在敲门?

Who is crying? 谁在哭?


7. 表示方位和地点的副词或介词短语开头的句子( Here, There, In, Out, Up, Down, Away, In the front of, In front of, In the distance, To the north, To the north of 等)

Here is a letter for you. 有你一封信呢。

There rings the bell. 铃响了。

In came a foreigner and out went the old lady. 

出去一个老太,进来一个老外。

Down fell a soldier but again up stood thousands of others. 

一个战士倒下了千万个战士又站起来了。

To the east of the two hills lies a modern beautiful city—Wuxi.

两山以东,坐落着一个美丽的现代化城市——无锡。


值得注意的是:在此类句型中,如果主语是代词,则只能使用位移的方法,而不是倒装。如:

Here you are. 给你。

Here we are. 我们终于到了。

In front of me she was at the moment. 

当时她就在我前面。


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第二,部分倒装的 8 种情况

部分倒装指“将协作合成谓语结构的相关联系动词、助动词或情态动词挪至主语之前”。例如:


1. So 开头表示某人、某事或某情况与前面所提到的相同。

She is Professor Li’ neighbor, so am I. 

她是李教授的邻居,我也是。


注意比较和区别So do I;So I do;I do so:

My father likes music. So do I. 

我爸爸喜欢音乐,我也一样。(部分倒装)

“As far as I know, you love traveling very much.” “So I do”.

“据我所知,你特别喜欢旅行”。“是的,我的确很喜欢”。(位移)

My teacher hopes that I write an English composition every day and I do so

老师希望我每天写一篇英语作文,我就按老师说的去做。(陈述句)


2. May 开头表达“祝愿”的句子。

May God bless you!愿上帝保佑你!

May you succeed!祝你成功!


3. Were, Had, Should 开头的虚拟条件句,即相当于 if 引导的条件状语从句。例如:

Should it rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the visit to next Wednesday.

= If it should rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the visit to next Wednesday.

如果明天下雨,我们只好将参观活动推迟到下个星期三。


4. 所有一般疑问句和绝大部分特殊疑问句。

Will you please fetch some water? 

你去帮我打点水来好吗?

Did the young man with a baby in his arms take drugs? 

怀里抱着个孩子的那小伙子吸过毒吗?

In which country did you live before you moved to our city? 

你在搬到我们城市之前在哪个国家住过?

When do you get up when you are not busy, for example on Saturday or Sunday? 

你不忙的时候,比如星期六和星期天,一般什么时候起床?


注意:Who is playing the piano in the next room? 谁在隔壁弹钢琴?(提问主语,用陈述句词序。)


5. Only 修饰状语置于句首

Only in this way can the experts and professors make it clear.

只有用这种方法专家和教授们才能把事情搞清楚。


6. So 修饰形容词或副词置于句首

So stingy is she that none of us likes her. 她太小气,没人喜欢她。

So attentively does Bill study that all the students in our class envy him.

Bill 学习特别认真,我们班所有同学都很羡慕他。


7. 提问半系动词的表语所构成的特殊疑问句

How has the bread I bought yesterday in the supermarket gone?

我昨天在超市买的面包怎么啦?

What does his nose look like? 他的鼻子长什么样?


8. 含有否定意义的副词或介词短语置于句首。这些否定词包括:

Not, No, Nor , Neither ,Never, Hardly, Scarcely, Little, Barely, Seldom, At no time, By no means,In no case, Not a bit 等等。

Not until I woke up after I had had a good sleep did my daughter go to bed last night.

昨晚直到我香香地睡了一觉醒来,我女儿才上床睡觉。

I can’t swim, nor can he. 我不会游泳,他也不会。

Never have my mother and I seen such a thing before.

以前我和妈妈从来没见到过这种事。

Barely did my uncle escape with his life. 

我叔叔好不容易才活着逃出来。

Seldom is my son late for school. 

我儿子上学几乎不迟到。

In no case should you touch it. 

无论如何你都不能碰它。


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第三,位移的 6 种情况

所谓位移是指 “作为谓语组成部分的相关系动词、助动词及情态动词不能倒置于主语之前,而只是句中的其他成分或语群或句群整体性位移于主语之前”。例如:


1. 强调句

It’s at six o’clock that she gets up. 她起床时间是 6 点。

It’s in America that she did learn how to drive a car. 她在美国学会开车。

It’s English that I am worried about at present. 眼下我着急的就是英语。


注意:强调结构的最大特征是除去“It’s….that…”,其余还是一个完整的句子。


2. 感叹句

How time flies! 时间过得真快啊!

How nice the girl is!多好的姑娘啊!


3. As 引导让步状语从句

Busy as she is, she is always sparing some time for me. 

虽然她很忙,但她总是挤时间陪我。

Try as I could , I decided to give the chance to others. 

尽管我可以再试,但我还是决定将这次机会让给他人。


4. So it is with…句型(…... 也一样)

Marx was born in Germany, and his native language was German. So it is with Engels. 

马克思出生于德国,他的母语是德语,恩格斯也是。


5. Rather than 开头的部分句型

Rather than that, I’d sooner die. 

我宁死也不愿做那种事。

Rather than John do it, I’d prefer to do the job myself.

与其让越翰去做,我宁可自己动手。

Rather than she should feel lonely, her friends arranged to take her with them on the trip.

她的朋友宁可安排带她去旅游,也不愿让她感到孤独。


6. 各种类型的从句

Where he lives is not known to us. 

他住哪儿没人知道。(主语从句)

I don’t know where he lives. 

我不知道他住哪儿。(宾语从句)

What matters most is where he lives. 

关键问题是他住哪儿。(表语从句)

I have no idea where he lives. 

我不知道他住哪儿。(同位语从句)

I found him in the place where he lives. 

我是在他现在所住的地方找到他的。(定语从句)

I found him where he lives. 

我是在他现在所住的地方找到他的”。(地点状语从句)


注意比较和区别:

When and where are you going to build a modern teaching building?

你们打算什么时候在什么地方造一栋现代化教学楼呢?(特殊疑问句结构)

When and where they are going to build a modern teaching building is not clear.

他们准备什么时候在什么地方造现代化教学楼还不大清楚。(从句结构)



第四,特殊倒装句的结构(放在句首的 -ing 形式)

这是不同于部分倒装和完全倒装的一种特殊倒装句,有的已变成语序固定的句型,不能把它作为一般的倒装句来分析,例如句子结构为“现在分词 +be 的各种形式+主语+......”。


在这种倒装句中,主动词(连同其宾语或状语)和助动词 be 双重提前,形成了完全倒装。之所以用倒装,主要是为了强调这个主语。

Sitting at her desk in deep concentration was my sister Flora. 

坐在书桌旁沉思的是我妹妹芙罗拉。

Also traveling around the sun are a number of comets.

同时绕着太阳运行的还有许多彗星。



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