Science:武汉海鲜市场可能不是新病毒在全球传播的源头

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小白老师说:1月27日,Science官网发表了题为"Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally"(《武汉海鲜市场可能不是新病毒在全球传播的源头》)的报道。



Science 官网报道页面截屏:▼


Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally

By Jon CohenJan. 26, 2020 , 11:25 PM


As confirmed cases of a novel virus surge around the world with worrisome speed, all eyes have so far focused on a seafood market in Wuhan, China, as the origin of the outbreak. But a description of the first clinical cases published in The Lanceton Friday challenges that hypothesis.

随着一种新型病毒的确诊病例在全球范围内以令人担忧的速度激增,目前所有人的目光都聚焦在中国武汉的一个海鲜市场上,认为它是疫情爆发的源头。但上周五发表在《柳叶刀》杂志上的对首批临床病例的描述,对这一假设提出了挑战。


The paper, written by a large group of Chinese researchers from several institutions, offers details about the first 41 hospitalized patients who had confirmed infections with what has been dubbed 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). 

这篇由几家机构的大批中国研究人员撰写的论文,详细介绍了首批确诊感染2019年新型冠状病毒(2019- ncov)的41名住院患者。


In the earliest case, the patient became ill on 1 December 2019 and had no reported link to the seafood market, the authors report. “No epidemiological link was found between the first patient and later cases,” they state. Their data also show that, in total, 13 of the 41 cases had no link to the marketplace. “That’s a big number, 13, with no link,” says Daniel Lucey, an infectious disease specialist at Georgetown University.

作者报告说,在最早的病例中,患者于2019年12月1日发病,没有报告与海鲜市场有关。他们说,在第一个病人和后来的病例之间没有发现流行病学上的联系。他们的数据还显示,在41起案件中,总共有13起与市场无关。乔治城大学的传染病专家丹尼尔·露西(Daniel Lucey)说,13是个很大的数字,但没有任何关联。


Earlier reports from Chinese health authorities and the World Health Organization had said the first patient had onset of symptoms on 8 December 2019—and those reports simply said “most” cases had links to the seafood market, which was closed on 1 January.

中国卫生部门和世界卫生组织(World health Organization)早些时候的报告称,第一例患者于2019年12月8日出现症状,而这些报告只是说,“大多数”病例与1月1日关闭的海鲜市场有关。


Lucey says if the new data are accurate, the first human infections must have occurred in November 2019—if not earlier—because there is an incubation time between infection and symptoms surfacing. If so, the virus possibly spread silently between people in Wuhan—and perhaps elsewhere—before the cluster of cases from the city’s now-infamous Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market was discovered in late December. 

Lucey说,如果新的数据是准确的,那么第一例人类感染肯定发生在2019年11月——如果不是更早的话——因为在感染和症状出现之间有一段潜伏期。如果是这样的话,病毒可能早就已经在武汉人之间悄无声息地传播——也可能在其他地方——直到12月下旬,在这个城市现在臭名昭著的华南海鲜批发市场发现这群病例之前。


“The virus came into that marketplace before it came out of that marketplace,” Lucey asserts.

“病毒是先被传入了海鲜市场,然后又传出市场。”Lucey断言。


The Lancet paper’s data also raise questions about the accuracy of the initial information China provided, Lucey says. At the beginning of the outbreak, the main official source of public information were notices from the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission. Its notices on 11 January started to refer to the 41 patients as the only confirmed cases and the count remained the same until 18 January. The notices did not state that the seafood market was the source, but they repeatedly noted that there was no evidence of human-to-human transmission and that most cases linked to the market.

Lucey说,《柳叶刀》杂志的数据也对中国提供的初始信息的准确性提出了质疑。在疫情爆发之初,官方信息的主要来源是武汉市卫生委员会的通知。该委员会1月11日通知,开始将41名患者作为唯一确诊病例,直到1月18日,病例数仍保持不变。公告没有说明海鲜市场是传染源,但他们反复强调,没有证据表明人传人,大多数病例与市场有关。


Because the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission noted that diagnostic tests had confirmed these 41 cases by 10 January and officials presumably knew the case histories of each patient, “China must have realized the epidemic did not originate in that Wuhan Huanan seafood market,” Lucey tells ScienceInsider. (Lucey also spoke about his concerns in an interview published online yesterday by Science Speaks, a project of the Infectious Disease Society of America.)

由于武汉市卫生委员会指出,到1月10日为止,诊断测试已经确认了这41例病例,而且官员们可能已经了解了每个患者的病例史,“中国肯定已经意识到,疫情并非起源于武汉华南海鲜市场,”Lucey告诉ScienceInsider。(Lucey在昨天美国传染病学会的一个项目“科学之声”在线发布的采访中也谈到了他的担忧。)


Kristian Andersen, an evolutionary biologist at the Scripps Research Institute who has analyzed sequences of 2019-nCoV to try to clarify its origin, says the 1 December timing of the first confirmed case was “an interesting tidbit” in The Lancetpaper.

克里普斯研究所(Scripps Research Institute)的进化生物学家克里斯蒂安·安德森(Kristian Andersen)分析了2019-nCoV的序列,试图弄清它的起源。


“The scenario of somebody being infected outside the market and then later bringing it to the market is one of the three scenarios we have considered that is still consistent with the data,” he says. “It’s entirely plausible given our current data and knowledge.” The other two scenarios are that the origin was a group of infected animals or a single animal that came into that marketplace.

他表示:“有人在市场之外受到感染,然后将病毒带到市场上,这是我们考虑过的三种情况之一,目前仍与数据相符。” “根据我们目前的数据和知识,这是完全合理的。“另外两种情况是,源头是一群受感染的动物,或者是进入市场的一只动物。


Andersen posted his analysis of 27 available genomes of 2019-nCoV on 25 January on a virology research website. It suggests they had a “most recent common ancestor”—meaning a common source—as early as 1 October 2019.

1月25日,安德森在一个病毒学研究网站上公布了他对2019-nCoV的27个可用基因组的分析结果。这表明他们早在2019年10月1日就拥有“最近的共同祖先”——即“一个共同的来源”。


Bin Cao of Capital Medical University, the corresponding author of The Lancetarticle and a pulmonary specialist, wrote in an email to ScienceInsiderthat he and his co-authors “appreciate the criticism” from Lucey. “Now It seems clear that [the] seafood market is not the only origin of the virus,” he wrote. “But to be honest, we still do not know where the virus came from now.”

《柳叶刀》杂志这篇文章的通讯作者、肺部疾病专家、首都医科大学的曹斌在给ScienceInsider的电子邮件中写道,他和他的合著者“感谢Lucey的评论”。他写道:“现在看来,很明显,海鲜市场不是唯一的病毒来源。” “但说实话,我们现在还不知道病毒是从哪里来的。”


Lucey notes that the discovery of the coronavirus that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome, a sometimes fatal disease that occurs sporadically, came from a patient in Saudi Arabia in June 2012, although later studies traced it back to an earlier hospital outbreak of unexplained pneumonia in Jordan in April 2012. 

Lucey指出,2012年6月在沙特阿拉伯的一名患者身上发现了冠状病毒,该病毒可导致中东呼吸综合征,这是一种有可能致命的疾病,后来的研究将其追溯到2012年4月在约旦一家医院爆发的不明原因的肺炎。


Stored samples from two people who died in Jordan confirmed they had been infected with the virus. Retrospective analyses of blood samples in China from people and animals—including vendors from other animal markets—may reveal a clear picture of where the 2019-nCoV originated, he suggests. “There might be a clear signal among the noise,” he says.

储存在约旦的两名死者的样本证实他们感染了病毒。他认为,对中国人类和动物血液样本的回顾性分析——包括来自其他动物市场的供应商——可能会揭示2019-nCoV起源的清晰图景。他表示:“在这些不一样的声音可能给我们提供了一个明确的信号。”


文章来源:

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/01/wuhan-seafood-market-may-not-be-source-novel-virus-spreading-globally


注:译文为有道词典在线翻译。


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