必看!“新型冠状病毒”双语表达、世卫组织英文访谈及预警报告

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小白老师说:新型冠状病毒引发的肺炎疫情爆发,病例陡增,本文带大家学习相关双语表达、来自世卫组织的预警报告、以及英文问答视频。



世卫组织官网的预警报告,看下图:▼

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从图中,我们可以看到“新型冠状病毒”对应的英文是“novel coronavirus”,就这个短语,有两个知识点:


第一,“novel ”在这里可不是“小说”的意思,而是“新奇的,异常的”。请大家记住这个表达。当然,“新型冠状病毒”写成“new coronavirus”也是可以的,下图来自世卫组织官方推特截图:▼


第二,冠状病毒 coronavirus 这个词是由拉丁词根 corona-(冠状的)和virus(病毒)符合而成。在显微镜下可以看到这类病毒颗粒的表面有许多排列规则的突起(protrusions),整个病毒颗粒就像一顶帝王的皇冠(crown),“冠状病毒”由此得名。▼


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世卫组织有关冠状病毒的问答,详戳视频:▼



What is a coronavirus? 

什么是冠状病毒?


Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that range from the common cold to MERS coronavirus, which is Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and SARS, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus.

冠状病毒是一个病毒群,包括引起普通感冒的病毒、中东呼吸综合征(MERS)冠状病毒和严重呼吸综合征(SARS)冠状病毒等。


Where do coronaviruses come from? 

冠状病毒源自何处?


Coronaviruses are circulating in animals and some of these corona viruses have the capability of transmitting between animals and humans. We call that a spillover event.

冠状病毒在动物中循环,有些冠状病毒具备在动物和人之间传播的能力。我们称其为溢出事件。


How can I help protect myself from a coronavirus? 

如何避免自己感染冠状病毒? 


The coronaviruses typically cause respiratory symptoms. So we recommend a basic hand hygiene, such as washing your hands with soap and water, and respiratory hygiene, such as when you sneeze, sneezing into your elbow.

冠状病毒通常会引起呼吸道症状。因此,我们建议要保持基本的手卫生,比如用肥皂和水洗手。还要注意呼吸道卫生,比如打喷嚏时,曲肘遮住口鼻。


Ways to protect yourself against a potential animal source would be to avoid unnecessary, unprotected contact with live animals and to make sure that you wash your hands thoroughly after contact with an animal, and also to make sure that your meat is cooked thoroughly before consuming.

保护自己免于动物来源感染的方式包括:避免在未加防护的情况下与活的动物有不必要的接触;要确保接触动物后彻底洗手;还要确保肉食全做熟后才能食用。


Is there a treatment?

有治疗方法吗?


There are no specific treatments for coronaviruses, but symptoms can be treated.

针对冠状病毒没有特异治疗方法,但可以对症治疗。


以下是WHO官网预警报告:


CDC is closely monitoring an outbreak of respiratory illness caused by a novel (new) coronavirus (termed “2019-nCoV”) that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which continues to expand. Chinese health officials have reported hundreds of infections with 2019-nCoV in China, including outside of Hubei Province. A number of countries, including the United States, have been actively screening incoming travelers from Wuhan and human infections with 2019-nCoV have been confirmed in Taiwan, Thailand, Japan, and South Korea.


中国疾控中心正在密切监测由一种新型(新)冠状病毒(被命名为为“2019nCoV”)引起的呼吸系统疾病的爆发,这种病毒首次在中国湖北省武汉市被发现,并继续扩大。中国卫生官员报告说,包括湖北省以及其他省份,在中国已有数百人感染。包括美国在内的多个国家一直在积极筛查武汉入境旅客,台湾、泰国、日本和韩国也证实了2019nCoV感染。



Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, some causing illness in people and others that circulate among animals, including camels, cats and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can evolve and infect people and then spread between people such as has been seen with MERS and SARS. When person-to-person spread has occurred with SARS and MERS, it is thought to have happened via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes, similar to how influenza and other respiratory pathogens spread. Spread of SARS and MERS between people has generally occurred between close contacts. Past MERS and SARS outbreaks have been complex, requiring comprehensive public health responses.


冠状病毒是一个大的病毒家族,有些会导致人的疾病,有些会在动物间传播,包括骆驼、猫和蝙蝠。很少有动物冠状病毒能进化并感染人,然后在人与人之间传播,如MERS和SARS。SARS和MERS的人际传播途径感染者咳嗽或打喷嚏时产生的呼吸道飞沫,类似于流感和其他呼吸道病原体的传播方式。SARS和MERS的传播一般发生于人际密切接触。既往的MERS和SARS疫情非常复杂,需要全面的公共卫生应对措施。



Early on, many of the patients in the outbreak in Wuhan, China reportedly had some link to a large seafood and animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. However, a growing number of patients reportedly have not had exposure to animal markets, suggesting person-to-person spread is occurring. At this time, it’s unclear how easily or sustainably this virus is spreading between people.


早些时候,据报道,在中国武汉爆发的疫情中,许多患者与一个大型海鲜和动物市场有一定关联,暗示动物对人传播。然而从报道来看,越来越多的病人并没有接触过动物市场,这表明人际传播正在发生。目前,尚不清楚这种病毒在人与人之间传播的容易程度和可持续性。



Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including whether and how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications).


新病毒在人群中的爆发一直是公共卫生关注的问题。这些暴发的风险取决于病毒的特性,包括病毒是否人际传播、传播的程度、由此引起的疾病的严重程度、以及有无医疗或其他措施(例如疫苗或药物治疗)来控制病毒产生的影响。


最后,向冒着生命危险保护我们的广大医护人员致敬!请大家一定注意防护,安全归来!


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