重磅|全国医学博士英语统考新大纲深度解读(听力篇)

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小白老师说:全国医学博士英语统考最新大纲已经面世,从新大纲来看,考试时长不变、题型整体稳定、听力作文微调。本文会就听力部分的题型变化作深度解读,并附上大纲全文。后续会持续更文,为大家详细分析作文、阅读、词汇等题型,并给出具体复习策略。



最新版大纲来自国家医学考试中心编写、人民卫生出版社出版的《全国医学博士英语统一考试指南》。▼

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新大纲的试卷结构如下:

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从这个试卷结构来看,新大纲有以下四个特点:

  • 考试题型整体稳定

  • 考试时长不变

  • 各单项分值不变

  • 听力和作文题型略有微调


下面就来给大家深入分析一下新的听力题型特点,并给出应对策略。


新大纲和老大纲一样,听力都分成两个部分,Section A 和 Section B。


Section A

老大纲的 Section A 是 15 则短对话,每则对话一题;新大纲的 Section A 是 5 则稍长一点点的对话,每个对话后面有三个选择题。(注意,我在这里没有用“长对话”,而是说“稍长一点点的对话”,因为从样题来看,改革后的这个对话虽然加长了,但是远不如现有老大纲长对话那么长。)


Section B

老大纲的 Section B 是 1 篇长对话+两篇短文,每篇 5 题;而新大纲的 Section B 是 5 篇小短文,每篇 3 题。


从听力的题型变化来看,我认为新大纲听力的整体难度降低了。


理由如下:


理由 1: 新大纲“长对话”不长


我们先来看一下新大纲给出的长对话样题:

W: Can you tell me about yourself, please?

M: Sure, my name's Harry, 18 years old, currently studying biology and chemistry at school. As you are aware, I hope to pursue a career in medicine.

W: Harry, why do you want to be a doctor?

M: Well, everyone in my family is a doctor, so I think I can follow on nicely.

W: Apart from treating patients, what do you think being a doctor is going to require?

M: Well, you also need to be academic and have to be an excellent communicator with your team and the patients.


这个长对话样题只有三个话轮(对话双方一人一句、一来一往被称之为一个话轮)。


其实,近几年真题的短对话就已经频繁出现多话轮的了,随便举个例子,比如 2016 年真题听力短对话第一题,就是三个话轮:


M: Can I see the doctor soon?

W: Of course. How about next Monday? There’s a slot available at ten in the morning.

M: But I’m afraid I’m working at ten. Is there anything available after three?

W: Let me see. Not on Monday. But we have a three o’clock opening next Wednesday. Would you like to come in then?

M: No problem. Thank you.

Question: When is the man scheduled to see the doctor?


所以新大纲的对话听力并不可怕,我们在历年真题里面早就接触过。这样的多话轮对话,我们早就接触过,而且一直在训练。两年前我就在公众号文章和魔法书里面分析过,“短对话不短”是一个重要的趋势。这也是为什么我们听力特训一百天没有设置单个话轮的短对话训练,给大家听的对话全部是多话轮的。


理由 2:对话题多,线索也多


新大纲对话听力后面的题由 1 题增加为 3 题,大家在试卷上能看到的选项就由 4 个增加到 12 个,选项越多,线索就越多,更有利于我们预测对话内容、扫清关键词。


我们一起来看新大纲上对话后面的选择题:

1. A. Switching to biologyand chemistry.

    B. Choosing to be a family physician.

    C. Going to college.

    D. Being a doctor.


2. A. Because of his family's influence.

    B. Because of the fact that he's young.

    C. Because of the practical skills he has.

    D. Because of his love for biology and chemistry.


3. A. A strong sense of responsibility.

    B. Good communicativeskills.

    C. Excellent health.

    D. Great patience.


根据这些选项,我们不但可以预测,这则对话可能是一个升学或求职的面试场景,而且能在选项中预览到对话录音中可能出现的关键词:biology,chemistry,communicative 等等,做到心中有数。


较之老大纲,新题型无疑对考生更友好。很多考生都有这样的感受,老题型的短对话确实是太短了!一男一女各说一句话,感觉在耳边一闪而过,还啥都没听清,对话就结束了,加之老题型短对话坑多,短短两句话,就要求大家分辨弦外之音、语气语调、习语文化,确实有点为难大家。


理由 3:短文听力篇幅变短,信息点不易遗忘


老题型的短文听力篇幅很长,比如 2018 年短文听力第一篇就有 315 词,涉及的细节多且琐碎,而大部分考生英语短期记忆能力差,前听后忘,录音一遍读完,已然忘光前面说什么了。


改革后的新大纲短文听力的篇幅只有 150 词左右,而且每篇后面只有三题,这无疑是重大利好。


以下是新大纲上给出的短文听力样题:


We commonly think that our health is affected by our age, gender, lifestyle and genetic factors that we inherit from our parents. However, these factors are only a small part of what affects our health. Other factors include our social relationships, income, education and working conditions. Let's look at stress for example. Unemployment or poor working conditions create unstable life situations and cause stress, which has negative effects on health. One major factor, education, determines income or employment. However, even if you are employed, some workplace conditions, such as lack of flexibility and control over your workday can cause stress. As you can see, many complex social processes and other factors are connected with one another to affect our health. Studying how these factors work together in large populations is a challenge for researchers and that is what we would like to look at next.


正如大家看到的,新大纲短文听力的篇幅比老题型缩短了将近一半,实在是感人啊!


综上所述,作为专业的英语高校教师,我认为新大纲听力题型设计更合理、更科学,一方面能更好地测试考生的真实听力水平。另一方面,对于考生来说,也更容易考出自身真实水平。总之一句话,改得好!


说一千道一万,不管题型怎么变,好好复习做强自己才是王道。我们的战略始终不变,踏实训练,提升能力,真正去听懂,以不变应万变,随便它怎么考!


以下是来自国家医学考试中心、人民卫生出版社出版的《全国医学博士外语统一考试大纲》的听力相关章节全文,词汇、阅读、完形、作文相关章节的大纲这几天会在公众号陆续全部发给大家。


全国医学博士外语统一考试

英语考试大纲


一、考试目的

为配合我国实施医学专业学位制度改革,保障医学博士研究生学位授予质量,特举行全国医学博士英语统一考试。考试目的在于科学、公正地测试考生掌握和运用英语的实际能力是否达到在职申请临床医学、口腔医学博士专业学位或攻读医学博士学位的英语水平。


二、考试设计

I. 本考试主要用于医学博士研究生入学和在职申请医学博士专业学位的英语水平测评,其命题不以任何一种医学英语教材为依据。


2. 考试内容为医学公共英语,注重突出医学英语特点。考试题材主要涉及医普、科普、人文方面的内容。


3. 本考试设置听力理解、词语用法、完型填空、阅读理解和书面表达5种题型,全面测试考生的英语水平,并突出对考生英语应用能力的测试,以衡量其是否已达到在职申请医学博士专业学位的英语水平或是否已达到医学博士研究生入学英语水平。


三、试卷结构

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试卷分为试卷一(Paper One)和试卷二(Paper Two)。试卷一包括听力(30%)、词语用法(10%)、完型填空(10%)和阅读理解(30%),答卷时间 115 分钟;试卷二包括书面表达(20%),答卷时间50分钟。


整个试卷共五大部分,总分100分,答卷时间共165分钟,加上考场指令与试卷收发时间,总共考试时间180分钟。


试卷一(Paper one)

Part I 听力理解(Listening Comprehension)

听力理解分两部分:Section A和Section B,答题时间为30分钟。


Section A:对话(Conversations)

本部分共5个对话,每个对话分别由100个左右的单词组成,旨在测试考生对英语对话的听力理解能力,要求考生能理解所听对话的中心思想和主要内容,并能根据所听到的内容进行逻辑推理、分析概括和归纳总结。


题型包括大意概括题(Questions for the general idea)、具体细节题(Questions for specific details)和判断推理题(Questions for inference)。每个对话附有3个小题,每个小题附有4个选项,要求考生在听完每个对话之后,根据所听内容于12秒内从中选出1个最佳答案。对话及问题只读1遍。


该部分共15个小题,序号为1~15。每题1分,共计15分。例:


听力录音:对话(题材:人文)

W: Can you tell me about yourself, please?

M: Sure, my name's Harry, 18 years old, currently studying biology and chemistry at school. As you are aware, I hope to pursue a career in medicine. 

W: Harry, why do you want to be a doctor?

M: Well, everyone in my family is a doctor, so I think I can follow on nicely. 

W: Apart from treating patients, what do you think being a doctor is going to require?

M: Well, you also need to be academic and have to be an excellent communicator with your team and the patients.


Question number 1: What are the two speakers talking about?

Question number 2: Why does Harry choose to be a doctor?

Question number 3: What is mentioned by Harry as one of the requirements for a doctor?


听力试题:

1. A. Switching to biology and chemistry.

B. Choosing to be a family physician.

C. Going to college.

D. Being a doctor.

答案:D

预估难度:易

考点:大意概括


2. A. Because of his family's influence.

B. Because of the fact that he's young.

C. Because of the practical skills he has.

D. Because of his love for biology and chemistry.

答案:A

预估难度:易

考点:具体细节


3. A. A strong sense of responsibility.

B. Good communicative skills.

C. Excellent health.

D. Great patience.

答案:B

预估难度:易

考点:具体细节


Section B:短文(Passages)

本部分共由5篇短文组成,每篇短文由150个左右的单词组成。旨在测试考生对英语篇章的听力理解能力。要求考生能理解所听短文的中心思想和主要内容,并能根据所听到的内容进行逻辑推理、分析概括和归纳总结。


题型包括大意概括题(Questions for the general idea)、具体细节题(Questions for specific details)和判断推理题(Questions for inference)。每篇短文附有3个小题,每个小题附有4个选项,要求考生在听完每篇短文后,根据所听内容于12秒内从中选出1个最佳答案。短文及问题只读一遍。


该部分共15个小题,序号为16~30。每题1分,共计15分。例:


听力录音:短文(题材:医普)

We commonly think that our health is affected by our age, gender, lifestyle and genetic factors that we inherit from our parents. However, these factors are only a small part of what affects our health. Other factors include our social relationships, income, education and working conditions. Let's look at stress for example. Unemployment or poor working conditions create unstable life situations and cause stress, which has negative effects on health. One major factor, education, determines income or employment. However, even if you are employed, some workplace conditions, such as lack of flexibility and control over your workday can cause stress. As you can see, many complex social processes and other factors are connected with one another to affect our health. Studying how these factors work together in large populations is a challenge for researchers and that is what we would like to look at next.


Question number 16: What is the passage mainly about?

Question number 17: What does the speaker intend to say by mentioning stress?

Question number 18: What does the speaker call for at the end of the passage?


听力试题:

16. A. The role of genetic factors.

B. The factors that affect health.

C. The impact of lifestyle on health.

D. The importance of working conditions.

答案:B

预估难度:易

考点:大意概括


17. A. People with jobs have less stress.

 B. The more education, the less stress.

 C. Many factors affect health via stress.

 D. Stress is not related to genetic make-up.

答案:C

预估难度:中

考点:具体细节


18. A. More challenging research on workplace stress.

B. A better understanding of stress-health relationship.

C. A better connection between medical research and practice.

D. More research on the combined effects of health-related factors.

答案:D

预估难度:难

考点:判断推理


未完待续。新大纲里面词汇、阅读、完形、作文等章节内容这两天将逐一全文发布,希望能帮到大家。


这两天,小白老师还会撰文,详细分析新大纲作文题型的变化及应对策略,请大家密切关注。



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